Arterial blood sampling: Blood is obtained via puncture into an artery by specially trained registered nurses and other health care personnel, such as respiratory therapists, physicians, nurse practitioners, and physician assistants.
Capillary blood testing: Blood collected from capillaries located near the surface of the skin.
Catheter embolism: Occurs when a small part of the cannula breaks off and flows into the vascular system.
Central venous access device (CVAD): A type of vascular access that involves the insertion of a catheter into a large vein in the arm, neck, chest, or groin.
Extravasation: The infiltration of damaging intravenous medications, such as chemotherapy, into the extravascular tissue around the site of infusion, causing tissue injury and possible necrosis.
Fluid volume overload (hypervolemia): A condition when there is too much fluid in the blood. Patients may present with shortness of breath, edema to the extremities, and weight gain.
Hypertonic solutions: Solutions that have a higher concentration of dissolved particles than blood.
Hypotonic solutions: Solutions that have a lower concentration of dissolved solutes than blood.
Infiltration: Infiltration occurs when the tip of the IV catheter slips out of the vein, the catheter passes through the wall of the vein, or the blood vessel wall allows part of the fluid to infuse into the surrounding tissue, resulting in the leakage of IV fluids into the surrounding tissue.
Intravenous therapy (IV therapy): Involves the administration of substances such as fluids, electrolytes, blood products, nutrition, or medications directly into a client’s vein.
Isotonic solutions: IV fluids that have a similar concentration of dissolved particles as found in the blood.
Midline peripheral catheters: A larger catheter (i.e., 16-18 gauge) that allow for rapid infusions but does not terminate in the central vasculature.
Necrosis: Tissue death.
Peripheral inserted central catheter: A thin, flexible tube inserted into a vein in the upper arm and guided into the superior vena cava.
Peripheral IV: An intravenous catheter inserted by percutaneous venipuncture into a peripheral vein and held in place with a sterile transparent dressing.
Phlebitis: Inflammation of a vein.
Saline lock: Refers to the use of a short extension set that allows IV access without requiring ongoing IV infusions.
Total parenteral nutrition (TPN): A very concentrated solution that must be administered via a central line.
Venipuncture: The process of introducing a needle into a client’s vein to collect a blood sample or insert an IV catheter.