Aspiration pneumonia: A type of lung infection caused by material from the stomach or mouth inadvertently entering the lungs that can be life-threatening.
Borborygmus: Hyperperistalsis, often referred to as “stomach growling.”
Distention: An expansion of the abdomen caused by the accumulation of air or fluid. Patients often report “feeling bloated.”
Dysphagia: Difficulty swallowing.
Dysuria: Painful urination.
Hematochezia: Passage of bloody stool.
Hematemesis: Blood-tinged mucus secretions from the lungs.
Hyperactive bowel sounds: Increased peristaltic activity; may be related to diarrhea, obstruction, or digestion of a meal.
Hypoactive bowel sounds: Decreased peristaltic activity; may be related to constipation following abdominal surgery or with an ileus.
Involuntary guarding: The reflexive contraction of overlying abdominal muscles as the result of peritoneal inflammation.
Melena: Stool dark in color and tarry in consistency.
Protuberant: Convex or bulging appearance.
Rebound tenderness: Pain when hand is withdrawn during palpation.
Rigidity: Involuntary contraction of the abdominal musculature in response to peritoneal inflammation.
Scaphoid: Sunken appearance.
Striae: White or silver markings from stretching of the skin.
Urinary frequency: Urination every hour or two.
Urinary incontinence: Involuntary leakage of urine.
Urinary urgency: An intense urge to urinate that can lead to urinary incontinence.
Voluntary guarding: Voluntary contraction of abdominal wall musculature; may be related to fear, anxiety or presence of cold hands.